Saturday, August 22, 2020

Atheists are also Gods Instruments Verse Analysis :: essays research papers

Nonbelievers are God's instruments, and them, however everything too. Note what the Apostle Paul has written in the Bible: For he saith unto Moses, 'I will show leniency toward whom I will show kindness, and I will have empathy on whom I will have sympathy.' So then it isn't of him that willeth, nor of him that runneth, however of God that sheweth benevolence. For the sacred writing saith unto Pharaoh, 'In any event, for this equivalent reason have I raised thee up, that I may shew my capacity in thee, and that my name may be pronounced all through all the Earth.' Therefore hath he kindness on whom he will show leniency, and whom he will he hardeneth. Romans 9:15-18. There are different sections, however until further notice let us assess the above entry from the King James Version: 1. God shows kindness toward those whom He needs to show benevolence toward. He has sympathy/love on those whom He needs to adore. 2. Man can attempt to accomplish something, however it is God who has settled on the choices and it is God who pre-destinated all things. 3. God pre-predetermined everything of what will befall them. 4. The Egyptian Pharaoh was made for God's motivations. The intentions were: God indicated His capacity and God's name was proclaimed all through all the Earth. 5. Pharaoh likely didn't have the foggiest idea about God's actual goals. Regardless of whether Pharaoh realized what it was, he was as yet incapable to oppose what has been pre-ordained by the Creator. Let us investigate what occurred in the book of Exodus: Also, Moses and Aaron went in unto Pharaoh, and they did as such as the Lord had instructed: and Aaron cast down his bar before Pharaoh, and before his workers, and it turned into a snake. At that point Pharaoh additionally called the savvy men and the alchemists: presently the entertainers of Egypt, they likewise did in like way with their charms. For they cast down each man his pole, and they became snakes: yet Aaron's pole gobbled up their poles. What's more, he solidified Pharaoh's heart, that he noticed not unto them, as the Lord has said. Also, the Lord said unto Moses, 'Pharaoh's heart is solidified, he refuseth to release the individuals.' Exodus 7:10-14. 1. Pharaoh saw the intensity of the Lord, and would not submit in any event, when Aaron's pole gulped the entertainer's bars. 2. God himself solidified the core of Pharaoh. See likewise Exodus 8:15 and different stanzas which show that Pharaoh's heart was solidified.

Thursday, July 16, 2020

Stand Out from the Crowd

Stand Out from the Crowd Differentiation is the principle of setting a company apart based on specific elements of the company. For the entrepreneur, understanding how to best differentiate a new company may be a source of frustration and confusion. Studying the strategies and methods of successful companies can help provide guidance for any company who wishes to take their business to the next level. © | Phonlamai PhotoThis article will provide 1) a general overview of differentiation strategies and then 2) study examples of differentiation strategies used by: a) Virgin Airlines, b) Etsy, c) Walmart, d) Apple, and e) Nike.GENERAL OVERVIEW OF DIFFERENTIATIONBefore examining the differentiation strategies of different companies, it is helpful to understand the concept of differentiation. When used as part of a larger competitive strategy, differentiation can be essential in propelling a company to the next level of growth.There are several elements of differentiation: pricing, product and organization.Pricing is the function of income and profit â€" the determining factor in the support of the organization. It can fluctuate based on supply and demand, and can be an indicator of the customer’s ideal value for the product. Companies that differentiate based on price can either determine to offer the lowest price, or can attempt to establish superiority through hig her prices.Another area of differentiation is through product offerings. Innovative products that meet customer needs can be an area where a company has an advantage over competitors. The pursuit of new product offerings can be costly â€" research and development, as well as production and marketing costs can all add expenses to a company before the product has even been offered to the customer, making this one of the riskier forms of differentiation. The payoff, however, can be great as customers flock to be among the first to have the new product.Organizational differentiation is yet another form of advantage. Maximizing the power of a brand, or using the specific advantages that an organization possesses can be instrumental to a company’s success. Location advantages, name recognition and customer loyalty can all provide additional ways for a company differentiate itself from the competition.EXAMPLES OF CORPORATE DIFFERENTIATIONVirgin AirlinesSpearheaded by Richard Branson, Vir gin Airlines is one of the multiple industries grouped under the “Virgin” label. Described by Branson as a company known for “innovation, quality and a sense of fun”, Virgin Airlines has taken to the skies in an effort to make air travel affordable and enjoyable. Virgin Atlantic, established in 1984, was born one night when Branson’s flight to the Virgin Islands was cancelled. Undaunted, he charted a plane and offered his fellow travelers a seat on the new plane for $29. His airline was born. Virgin America started in 2004, operating in the United States and other western countries. Virgin’s business model is offering inexpensive fares, full service flights and outstanding customer service.Strategy UsedVirgin’s differentiation strategy is two-fold: pricing and service. By reducing the costs associated with air travel, Virgin Airlines is able to remain competitive with the cost-cutting airline companies. Lower costs, however, don’t translate into fewer services â€" Vi rgin is a full service airline with on-plane WIFI, touchscreen seatback entertainment, and full service meals available with roomy cabins.Through acquisitions and subsidiaries, Virgin is able to operate in different markets around the world, capitalizing on the Virgin name and promoting their services. Establishing a successful airline company brings new sets of regulations and procedures, depending on what country the airline is operating in. Virgin has remained consistent in maintaining their business model: competitive pricing, excellent customer service; however, the airline has had its ups and downs in the 30 years it has been airborne.A clear strategy has enabled Virgin to maintain their presence in the global air travel market: remain true to the Virgin brand. Promoting the brand and capitalizing on the Virgin name has been essential to the success of the company. That helped to springboard the airline to popularity, but the well-positioned airline is relying on their sound b usiness strategy to keep them at the top of the airline list.Drivers of success/failureTheir two strategies: low costs and excellent service are both a part of their successes, and their failures. By offering customers low costs, they are in direct competition with other low-fare airline services and customers have multiple options. The extra amenities and customer service that is exemplary are often the deciding factor in a customer’s choice to select Virgin over another airline. (A stunning affirmation that Branson’s plan works.)However, in the United States where regulations are strict and competition is fierce, the market is not as easy to conquer. Because of the high number of amenities the airline offers, the costs associated with the airline are high and offer lower profit margins. The power of the Virgin brand is compelling, however, and the Virgin vision is for a long-term drive to success. In the eyes of the corporation, the slow and steady race to profitability is pre ferable over the short (and short-lived) success.ETSYOnline artisan store and shopping gallery, Etsy offers its users the chance to showcase their handmade wares and sell them to customers around the world. From their beginnings as a crafter’s paradise, Etsy has carved out a niche company through sales of craft supplies as well as homemade items. Through Etsy, a community of crafters has found a home on the internet and the world has been opened to the amateur crafter who wishes to sell their products. The Etsy business model brings together the craftiness of individuals and the business savvy of investors who are confident the Do It Yourself crowd will also be members of the Let Someone Else Do It crowd.Strategy UsedEtsy is relying on the diversity of the products they offer to differentiate themselves from the hundreds of available craft sites online. By limiting their product offerings to craft items, they are targeting a specific portion of the market, giving them the edge the y need to stand out from the crowd.Drivers of success/failureEtsy has several distinct features working in its favor. Price point is a key factor in the success of the online store: a majority of Etsy’s customers spend between $15.00 and $20.00. They charge a relatively low fee to vendors for handling the payment transaction, and a small fee is charged per item listed in the crafter’s ‘store’. With low fees, the company is able to remain competitive with other online shopping services such as eBay and Amazon. A wide variety of products is available, leaving customers a well-designed website to browse through and highlight on social media.While the company has enjoyed success since the company began in 2005, there are a few elements of their strategy that have the potential of becoming a failure. In addition, their success has created problems for the artisans who are unable to keep up with the higher number of demands. A majority of the artisans on Etsy are simply hobbyists who craft in their spare time. The growing sales figures are causing the crafters to work longer hours and are maximizing the number of items that they can personally produce. The company recently made changes to their user agreement; allowing products to be sold that were designed by an Etsy member, but may have been produced by someone else. The ‘mass production’ of craft items is a slippery slope â€" at what point is an item considered handmade?Etsy is at a crossroads and must decide to remain true to their original intent: providing a ‘virtual craft fair’ for artists or seek higher fortunes through expanded offerings and growth.WALMARTThe vision of Sam Walton was to build a company that offered convenience and low prices. His original intent has driven the company to huge financial gains, and the company has not changed their business model. Through the last twenty years, the company has built massive super stores, offering everything from automotive supplies to grocerie s and clothing. Recently, the company has expanded its one-stop shopping center empire to include small, neighborhood market stores.Strategy UsedWalmart has a clear differentiation strategy: pricing. Everything that Walmart does is specifically selected to keep prices low. Their famous “roll-back” pricing strategy is designed to constantly monitor competitor pricing and offer a lower price. Through purchasing, shipping, warehousing and retail marketing, Walmart is standing out by consistently giving customers exactly what they want or need at a lower cost.Drivers of success/failureThe market for low-cost retail stores is always in constant upheaval. There are several competitors in the market, although few can come close to the scope of Walmart’s organization. The distribution channels that Walmart has put into place are one of the key factors in their success. With a network of warehouses, shipping services and innovative stocking methods, Walmart remains a market giant for c onvenience and price. Developing their own integrated systems for ordering, shipping and delivering, Walmart is able to maintain their low prices.While their market saturation can be seen in the number of Walmart locations, their continued expansion can also be an indicator of its failure. Walmart is often not received well in smaller communities, where residents are concerned about local businesses being affected, environmental impact and traffic concerns in the areas that Walmart is built.In addition, because Walmart bases their differentiation on pricing, other companies are continually trying to compete with their low prices, causing the company to find new ways to lower prices. There is constant pressure on the corporation to buy massive quantities to keep their stores stocked and prices low.In spite of these difficulties, however, Walmart remains a powerful market force in every geographical area that they do business in. The addition of the market stores has added additional opportunities for the corporation to attract new customers, and the buying process for food items has created new, lower price point products.[slideshare id=27661229doc=wal-martscostleadershipstrategy-131028142501-phpapp02w=640h=330]APPLEOnce known only for their ‘it’s not IBM’ computers, Apple has grown into a major electronics company that offers everything from personal electronics to televisions. Offering innovative products and creating a network of services that work together, Apple has developed some of the world’s most daring technology. Through their business model of innovation and design, they have branded their company as the forerunner in marketing, service and sales.Strategy UsedApple has a multi-faceted differentiation strategy. They are innovators who constantly push the limits of products and services, a strategy that is hugely successful. In addition, they are relentless in the pursuit of excellent customer service. Finally, they capitalize on the brand its elf, which has become a part of the culture through their advertising campaigns and product placement.Drivers of Success/failuresOne of the most successful drivers of Apple’s strategy is the creation of their own ‘ecosystem’. The Apple line is designed to integrate among other Apple products, seamlessly sharing media across devices. This ecosystem provides users with the ability to share their music files from their iPod to their iPhone to their PC or Apple TV. Leaving the ecosystem would not only be costly, it would be cumbersome to try to assimilate the same ease of use â€" a fact that Apple uses to their advantage.Another important driver of success is the innovation that Apple has continued to demonstrate. With constant release of new, advanced offerings, Apple has maintained their position as the leader of the technology market and can draw thousands to their door in anticipation of the release of a new product. To wield that power, it is evident the company has mastered the art of the customer hook. Through skillful advertising and branding, Apple has set the standard for other technology companies to follow, though few have managed to come close to their level of success.Interestingly, another aspect of Apple that has led to its overwhelming success is the company’s willingness to fail. There have been several ‘bad Apples’ in the line of Apple products: MobileMe, and Ping, for example. These services were not well received and did not perform well in the Apple lineup, so Apple pulled them from their offerings. The company shows little resistance to pulling these ‘failures’ from the market, but doesn’t hesitate to find better use for their technology. The technology was reused and repacked, finding its way into the iTunes market and as part of the basis for ‘the Cloud’. By being willing to fail, Apple demonstrates their commitment to finding new ways of solving problems. NIKEAthletic gear provider Nike is considered the premier athl ete supplier for serious athletes. Their products include athletic footwear, workout and performance clothes as well as athletic accessories such as gym bags, headbands, balls and more. Their business model is simple: offer high quality sports materials and customers will be willing to pay higher prices.Strategy usedNike’s differentiation strategy is to establish the company as the standard in athletic wear. By focusing on their product line, they are able to produce high quality products that meet customer expectations. Nike’s product line is not wide: they offer athletic shoes, workout clothes and a very limited number of additional products. Their focus is clear: give the athlete the equipment they need to succeed. This single-minded focus has allowed them to develop efficient networks of suppliers and manufacturers who can provide high quality materials.Drivers of success/failuresThe most prominent driver for Nike’s success is their distinctive marketing strategy. Nike has established itself not only as a leading brand for athletes, but also as a leading fashion brand. Through identification with athletes, customers are compelled to purchase their athletic wear for competitive and recreational use.Another driver of success is their commitment to research and development. Within the athletic market there is a high level of competition. To remain a leader in the industry, Nike must constantly be innovating with new and improved tools to help the athlete perform at their peak. Improved athletic wear, the partnership with Apple for fitness training, the ability to personalize workout shoes are all examples of the innovative products that Nike has developed. By maintaining this level of innovation, Nike will be constantly in the front of the competition.One area that could become a driver of failure is the higher price point of Nike’s products. The availability of other options in the athletic wear department gives customers the opportunity to select a product based on price rather than options. For the cost-conscious customer, the choice will almost always be a company other than Nike. To retain their foothold in the market, Nike must establish a way to lower production costs and offer their lineup of products at a lower cost.[slideshare id=7542006doc=competitiveadvantagefornike-110406200840-phpapp02w=640h=330]

Thursday, May 21, 2020

Cult Film Nicolas Winding Refns Drive And David...

The key concept to be explored is genre and my investigation will revolve around focused research on the expansive genre of cult film, as I look to not only elaborate on it, but also try to clarify it. Utilising the work of theorists Sconce, Fiske, Austin and many others, I will base my research around two contrasting texts that are both connected by cult film – Nicolas Winding Refn’s Drive and David Fincher’s Fight Club, analysing not only how their technical and visual codes help to give them cult status, but also how their audience appeal ties in with niche psychometrics and cult film overall. Since its beginnings in the 1950s with movies like Plan 9 from Outer Space and The Blob, cult film has never utilised one set of conventions†¦show more content†¦This case can also be reemphasised by theorists Fiske and Jancovitch too, as both have looked to create compelling connections between audience reception procedures and cult film also. What’s more, many of these theorists have also come to contend theoretical responses about the conception of ‘resurrection’ in cult film – the ideology that one way for a film to achieve its cult status is through being ‘revived’ from its bumpy origins in production or commercial disappointments at the box-office through the lasting appreciation of niche audiences. This therefore means that the film will survive in an oppositional context to what Fiske declared as the ‘more â€Å"normal† popular audiences’ of that period. In addition, it is this ideology of ‘resurrectio n’ within cult film that David Fincher’s Fight Club illustrates. â€Å"’Fight Club’ sold 13 million DVDs. It paid for itself.† proclaimed auteur David Fincher, whose text back in 1999 was financially unsuccessful, but soon gained cult status through its DVD releases and fandom events that were a commercial hit. Subjectively following the point of view of Brad Pitt’s rebellious protagonist Tyler Durden and his coming of age society, Fight Club is a present-day touchstone for audiences to recognise the

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Generational Shift in Communication Essay - 1132 Words

I believe that one’s age and generation do not affect their leadership style nearly as much as there life experience, motivation, and knowledge. A leader can be successful at any age, if they are willing and eager to constantly adapt their communication styles to accommodate their followers’ needs. However, within each generation there are different values and management styles and if an individual resists adapting to newer methods and neglects to embrace change they will not be a successful leader. For example, the business world has grown into a much different culture than it was 20 years ago. With the Information Age booming, information is readily accessible to many individuals and the lines of communication between leader and†¦show more content†¦(Behrstock–Sherratt and Coggshall, 2010) It is the combination of the focus on relationships, embracing the technological age, and their desire to create a positive impact on society through their busi ness practices that separate Generation Y from other generations and have created the shift in how teams communicate with one another. Leaders in Generation Y value and appreciate the professional relationships they create within their organizational culture, which creates a more democratic way of leading a team. Within this democratic leadership style, effective communication is essential to successful operations. New research has allowed Generation Y leaders to apply the knowledge they gain prior to getting trapped in the routine of a dictatorship. In the past 5 years alone, there have been multiple studies done regarding solely how leaders can communicate with their team to create the highest success rate along with the most invested followers. According to Clark (2008, para. 2), â€Å"Studying the communication process is important because you coach, coordinate, counsel, evaluate, and supervise throughout this process. It is the chain of understanding that integrates the me mbers of an organization from top to bottom, bottom to top, and side to side.† It is this cyclical ideology that has encouraged follower feedback and leader responsiveness and active listening, rather than acceptance of an individual leaders’ vision. The other communication shift that hasShow MoreRelatedOrganizational Structure And Culture At Lone Tree Convalescent Hospital1054 Words   |  5 Pagesis the pattern of learned values, attitudes, and behaviors in the organization’s members (Schein, 1990). 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Discrimination in the Workplace Free Essays

Seaquist (2012) clearly states in the text ‘Business Law for Managers’ that nothing in the Constitution explicitly mentions discrimination, but it contains provisions that have been interpreted by the U. S. Supreme Court to grant rights that have to do with equal treatment under the law (Seaquist, 2012). We will write a custom essay sample on Discrimination in the Workplace or any similar topic only for you Order Now According to Seaquist (2012) Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act was enacted to remedy segregation and to outlaw discrimination of the underrepresented monitories in this country (Seaquist, 2012). Regardless to the enactment of the 1964 Civil Rights Act, discrimination still runs rapid in today’s society. While discrimination may not as it was in the late 1950s and 1960s with its bold and ugly face, it still exists today in a more subtle unnoticeable manner. How can discrimination still exist in a country that is so rich in culture, when this country has supposedly worked hard to rid all types of discrimination? No one can really answer this question without stepping on others beliefs and values. Yet, as an African American born in America, raised in the South, educated in the South and across the internet this author contents that discrimination in the work exist more today in more subtle ways than ever before. This author argues that discrimination still exist in society today, especially in the workplace and especially by those in higher positions. Due to the feelings of this author regarding discrimination is the reason for this paper, and is the reason why this paper will discuss the types of discrimination, the history of discrimination, the theories of discrimination, the legal, and the ethical responsibility of discrimination. II. Defining Discrimination From US Legal, Inc (2013) the definition of discrimination is nothing more than making a distinction for or against a person or thing based on group, class, or category to which a person or thing belongs to (US Legal, Inc. , 2013). Here US Legal, Inc. (2013) points out how discrimination can be the effect of some law or practice that bestow privileges on a certain class or denies privileges on a certain class because of race, age, sex, nationality, religion, or handicap (US Legal, Inc., 2013). Unlike US Legal, Inc., Business defines discrimination as the bias or prejudice resulting in denial of opportunity or unfair treatment regarding selection, promotion, or transfer; is practiced commonly on the grounds of age, disability, ethnicity, origin, political belief, race, religion, sex, etc. factors which are irrelevant to a person’s competence or suitability; unequal treatment, provided to one or more parties on the basis of a mutual accord or some other logical or illogical reason; and last, the differences in two rates not explainable or justifiable by economic consideration such as cost (Business Dictionary. com, n. d). Still, in the article ‘Rescuing the Concept of Discrimination’ by Crawford (2001) it claims that there are eight ways to define discrimination; beginning with (1) descriptive discrimination which is any different or unequal treatment and it describes what the speaker has in mind- (2) judgmental discrimination is any different or unequal treatment that is unjust, using this word, the speaker expresses his judgment that the action is wrong-(3) adverse discrimination is any different or unequal treatment, only when it is adverse; accordingly when not adverse, different or unequal treatment is not discrimination and assumes that unequal treatment can be favorable to one person without being unfavorable to another – (4) prejudice discrimination is any different or unequal treatment that is motivated by prejudice and has the advantage of freeing different treatment from the label of discrimination when it is prompted by a desire to promote the general welfare- (5) illegality discrimination is different or unequal treatment that is unlawful and can point to regulations, laws, or court decisions that arguably legalize unequal treatment based on race in the circumstances in which they practice it- (6) ideological discrimination is any different or unequal treatment that operate against people based on their membership in an oppressed, disadvantaged or underrepresented group – (7) dictionary definition of discrimination is any different or unequal treatment on a basis that disregards individual merit- and (8) proposed discrimination is any different or unequal treatment on a basis the speaker presumes to be ordinarily unjust (Crawford, 2001). Regardless to how discrimination broken down as or how it is being disguised, it all boils down to being unlawful acts of mistreatment of another person or group of people based on age, disability, ethnicity, origin, political belief, race, religion, or sex. III. Discrimination in the Workplace Types of discrimination In the text ‘Business Law for Managers’ by Seaquist (2012) it discusses the different types of discrimination and lists the types as: race, color, sex, sexual harassment religion and national origin (Seaquist, 2012). Crawford (2001) provided us with only eight different types of definitions defining discrimination that can easily be attached to any one of the types of discrimination that Seaquist (2012) lists in his discussion. As Crawford (2001) describes and discusses eight different types of definitions defining discrimination, in everyday life people seldom see or even experience many of these discriminating acts that Crawford talks about in his article. The everyday person who does experience discrimination, experience the type of discrimination that is defined by US Legal, Inc. (2013), Business Dictionary. com (n. d), and discussed by Seaquist (2012). Because everyday people experience the type of discrimination that US Legal, Inc. (2013), Business Dictionary. com (n. d), and Seaquist (2012) defines and describes, this section will only focused on two specific forms of discrimination which is gender and racial as it is the most offensive for this author. Gender discrimination Let us look at gender discrimination and defined as well as illustrate how gender discrimination often occur in more subtle ways in the workplace. According to US Legal, Inc. , gender discrimination is any action that specifically denies opportunities, privileges, or rewards to a person or a group because of gender (US Legal, Inc. , 2013) Although, Gender Discrimination – Further Readings (n.d) also defines gender discrimination as the unequal treatment of a person based solely on that person’s sex (Gender Discrimination-Further Readings, n. d). For example, a recent opening in management occurs at Murdoch Developmental Center. A white male and black female applicant in the organization applied for this position, both had the same amount of education, but the white male had little qualifications in experience than the female; the black female has both education and several years of experience working with this type of cliental. Yet, the white male was offered the position over the black female who was more qualified and could assume all the responsibilities of the job. It was rumor that the reason the white male was promoted over the black female was because the unit in which management was needed was an all male unit and the unit would probably do better with a male leader than a female leader. Yet, according to Cornell University ILR School (2001), there has been progress, but gender discrimination is a widespread problem (Cornell University ILR School, 2001). However, Khosrovani and Ward (2011) argues that between 1940 and 1980 African American women made great progress and were nearing the status of white women, but today more black women are in subordinate status position with lower pay (Khosrovani Ward, 2011). On the contrary, Kamery (2004) refers to gender discrimination through Bunton (1998) definition as preferential behavior because of one’s gender (Kamery, 2004). Kamery (2004) discusses the wage gap between genders and how Bunton (1998) credits the industrial revolution as a significant step toward the improvement for women in the workforce as the regulations that were established were designed to protect women in the labor market, but it had a long-running negative effect on women’s equality (Kamery, 2004). The article described how colleges and universities excluded women from teaching and administrative occupations and even when and if they were allowed into certain occupations they limited to low pay level entry and low status positions (Kamery, 2004). As most people believed as Bunton (1998) explained in this article that the physical differences between men and women were a conditioning of society and most believed that a woman’s place was in the home and not in the workforce (Kamery, 2004). Racial discrimination Racial discrimination can be defined as the practice of letting a person’s race or skin color unfairly become a factor when deciding who receives a job, promotion, or other employment benefit (US Legal, Inc. , 2013). Cornell University ILR School (2001) asserts that racial discrimination persists in all parts of the Americas and ethnic minorities and migrant workers are mainly effected worsening poverty and making poverty last longer (Cornell University ILR School, 2001). Unlike Heather, Kevin, and Jitendra (2013) who provides readers with statics from the U. S. Department (2009) about the current national unemployment rate of 10. 2% and states that the economic recession claims that employment discrimination is up (Heather, Kevin, Jitendra, 2013). Further in the article by Heather, Kevin, and Jitendra (2013) it provides readers with a definition for discrimination that comes from Webster’s Online Dictionary, stating that discrimination is a biased decision based on a prejudice against an individual group characterized by race, class, sexual orientation, age, disabilities and so forth (Heather, Kevin, Jitendra, 2013). Although, Khosrovani and Ward (2010) claims that data indicate that the majority if African American employees were not promoted to higher levels in their companies, less than sixty percent believed that female employees had a better chance of advancement, and most African Americans do not believe that they receive equal opportunities from their employers in the areas of advance job training, mentoring, and promotions (Khosrovani Ward, 2011). On the other hand, Shih-Hsueh and Kleiner (1998) asserts that in places of limited employment racial conflict is more intense (Shih-Hsueh Kleiner, 1998). Shih-Hsueh and Kleiner (1998) contends that in the United States discrimination in employment is damaging and ethnic discrimination in the United States is closely related to the historic patterns of immigration and migration (Shih-Hsueh Kleiner, 1998). In fact, Shih-Hsueh and Kleiner (1998) states that black workers are more closely watched than white workers not because of the characteristics of the job but because they are black; black workers systematically discriminated against in access to jobs, but they are better qualified for their job than the white workers that are working next to them; and blacks work in jobs where the majority of their co-workers are white which makes for profound racism and is looked upon as token representatives (Shih-Hsueh Kleiner, 1998). Last, Shih-Hsueh and Kleiner (1998) ends with the describing the subtle racism in the labour process and the interactional patterns that arise in the workplace which generates discrimination, and all the while the social acts of everyday life signifies the super ordinance of white status reminding black workers that they are in a white environment (Shih-Hsueh Kleiner, 1998). For example, on my job there are more whites in upper management and more blacks in the lower levels of the organization. Black staffs have been watched more closely and corrected more times than their white counterparts. Black employees are more likely to be reprimand than their white counterpart, and blacks receive fewer promotions or recognition for a job well done than their white counterpart. This example is also supported by Shih-Hsueh and Kleiner (1998) article ‘Race Discrimination in the Workplace’ which states†¦ â€Å"When educated black American competes successfully for upper middle- class jobs, they represent a demographically small, although highly visible, threat to middle- class white males (Shih-Hsueh Kleiner, 1998). † IV. History Yuan and Kleiner (1998) discusses in the article ‘How to Investigate and Prove Racial Discrimination’ how discrimination is universal and racial issues are not exclusively confined to internal affairs of any state but to all in one way or another, affecting the peace and security of us all (Yuan Kleiner, 1998). Yuan and Kleiner (1998) tells of racial differences that had been established as symbols of superiority-inferiority and used as weapons in particular group conflicts such as the sixteenth century when this pattern was focused upon a particular race with brutality, and was the most inhuman aspect of European history (Yuan Kleiner, 1998). Furthermore, Yuan and Kleiner (1998) asserts that the slavery that the African population was subjected to in America was the most inhuman case of racial discrimination, and even the abolition of slavery did not end discrimination, it just made the freed slaves continue to belong to the lowest stratum of society (Yuan Kleiner, 1998). Yet, in the article ‘Only One Place of Redress: African Americans, Labor Regulations, and the Courts from Reconstruction to the New Deal’ by Bernstein and Lichtenstein (2002), readers can see that discrimination existed and was noted as far back as the 1870s (Bernstein Lichtenstein, 2002). Still, Shih-Hsueh and Kleiner (1998) asserts that the history of the working class in the south is a history of poor whites that were often manipulated by economic elites fighting to exclude poor blacks from economic opportunities (Shih-Hsueh Kleiner, 1998). According to Shih-Hsueh and Kleiner (1998) the civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s won the passage in legislation as the affirmative action was design to help correct past discrimination acts (Shih-Hsueh Kleiner, 1998). It was through the use of affirmative action that increased employment opportunities for women and ethnic minorities, and it was through affirmative action plans that established racial quotas that were declared as unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in 1978 (Shih-Hsueh Kleiner, 1998). Also in this article it claimed that a study was conducted by Donald Tomaskovic-Devey who focused on the aspect of the labour process, in areas of wages and access to on the job training (Shih-Hsueh Kleiner, 1998). While the findings were not so obvious in this area it was found in less obvious aspects of the labour process such as the intensity of supervision and the degree to one’s work opposed to manager controlled (Shih-Hsueh Kleiner, 1998). There was evidence of direct racial discrimination that did not tie to the skill level or racial composition of the job (Shih-Hsueh Kleiner, 1998). As Skrentny (2007) argues that open discrimination against blacks in the south meant few saw it as a significant problem because Title VII did not define discrimination; section 703(a) simply said that it was unlawful for an employer to fail or refuse to hire or to discharge any individual, or otherwise to discriminate against any individual with respect to his compensation, terms, conditions, or privileges of employment, because of such individual’s race, color, religion, sex, or national origin (Skrentny, 2007). This too, supports this author’s argument that discrimination is often in subtle forms making it not that noticeable by those that are not affected by it. Causes of Discrimination Yuan and Kleiner (1998) seen to think that prejudice is the reason for discrimination, especially racial discrimination (Yuan Kleiner, 1998). According to Yuan and Kleiner (1998) racism is a strong cause of prejudice and racial discrimination (Yuan Kleiner, 1998). â€Å"Racism is said to be based on â€Å"prejudices†, which constitute judgments made in the absence of evidence, and â€Å"stereotypes†, which are grossly misleading generalizations about groups (Yuan Kleiner, 1998).† An example of stereotyping, an owner of a restaurant who is white has been raised to think that Asian people are more reliable, and very good in math; and African Americans (blacks) are lazy and will steal anything and everything that they get their hands on. The restaurant owner places a sign in the window advertizing a part-time waitress position, an African American and an Asian American apply and is interviewed for a part-time waitress position in a restaurant. The African American has five years of experience as a waitress with a bachelor’s degree; the Asian American has two years experience with a high school diploma. The owner thinks about what he has been taught about Asian people and offers the Asian American the position because the owner thinks that the Asian American is better in math, and is a harder worker as he thinks of the African American as lazy and unreliable. As Yuan and Kleiner (1998) article place emphasis on psychologists and their views, maintaining that part of prejudice which people entertain is due to frustration and unhappiness (Yuan Kleiner, 1998). When people fail to understand the cause for their frustrations or recognize their inability to prevent their frustrations they tend to search for scapegoats so that they might project their anger, hatred, fear, and disillusionment (Yuan Kleiner, 1998). Yuan and Kleiner (1998) referred to a study that was conducted by a person name Horowitz who believes in some countries where racism prevalent that prejudice is natural and inborn in people (Yuan Kleiner, 1998). In Horowitz observation he noted that very young black and white children played freely with each other, without being aware of differences, but later the white children were compelled to stay away from the black playmates under threat of punishment as one of the most frequent causes for getting a whipping was due to playing with a black child (Yuan Kleiner, 1998). Although Horowitz’s findings do not provide readers with evidence that such factors cause prejudice and discrimination, and frustration does not always lead to aggression and hostility, Yuan and Kleiner (1998) does conclude that this may make one more susceptible to prejudice; factors such as economics may intensify or lessen prejudice (Yuan Kleiner, 1998). Combating Discrimination According to Shih-Hsueh and Kleiner (1998) the efforts to combat racial discrimination and racism took place in post- World War II history as the civil rights movement of the 1950s developed (Shih-Hsueh Kleiner, 1998). Further, Shih-Hsueh and Kleiner (1998) propose that the United States government combated discrimination in the areas of hiring and promotions by using equal opportunity and affirmative action laws and policies (Shih-Hsueh Kleiner, 1998). Thus, labor laws were established to equalize the bargaining power between the employers and the employees; these labor laws grant employees the right to unionize as it also allows the employers and the employees to participate in activities such as strikes and picketing (Cornell University Law School, n. d). Cornell University Law School (n. d) article reports that labor law is governed by federal law, state law and judicial decisions, and is also governed by regulations and decisions of administrative agencies (Cornell University Law School, n. d). Even so, Topping (2009) article asserts that white racism had not only divided the labor movement but it was institutionalized within the extent the racist practices were proven difficult to exorcise (Topping, 2009). Topping (2009) further asserts that the central idea was that the Wagner Act and the 1964 Civil Rights Act was designed for different purposes, but made other societal problems worse (Topping, 2009). Yet, Skrentny (2007) argues that the primary goal for the establishment and implementation of the 1964 Civil Rights Act was to create equal opportunities for African Americans by ending Jim Crow discrimination in the south (Skrentny, 2007). Moreover, this article suggests that sociological evidence indicates that U. S.  businesses engaged in race-conscious employment and focused on the perceived value of racial skills and racial symbolism; as businesses hired Asians and Latinos because of the perceived racial skills of these groups at low-status jobs that require strong work ethics and obedient attitudes (Skrentny, 2007). Further, Skrentny (2007) asserts that corporate employers seeking skilled worker did not necessarily prefer immigrants, but they reached for the symbolic values of diversity, but for their general racial skills at bringing new ideas to the workplace, and for their racial marketing skills for growing non-white markets (Skrentny, 2007). V. Theories Profeminist theories In an article written by Zwiech (2010) lists a number of concepts developed to account for discrimination against women in professional life (Zwiech, 2010). Such as the theorist Lenski, who according to Zwiech (2010), treats women as a separate social class and believes that people perceive family as a group of individuals and not a unit within the stratification system (Zwiech, 2010). In this article it asserts that Lenski’s theory it states that privilege depend on power and power depend on resources; he thinks that women’s resources are limited compared to men’s resources, because women’s resources are limited in power so are their privileges (Zwiech, 2010). While Zwiech (2010) describes Lenski’s theory, Zwiech describes another theorist perspective of class formation which was developed by Parkin (Zwiech, 2010). In Parkin’s theory, Parkin is against gender inequality of class structure; Parkin believes that gender could be treated as a factor determining the stratification if women’s disadvantage are greater than class distinction (Zwiech, 2010). Moreover, Parkin’s theory stresses that discrimination against women in the labour market results from male employees’ interest and the distribution of female employees, family roles that they perform, and household duties that they are charged with (Zwiech, 2010). Still, there is theorist Parsons who Zwiech (2010) describes in this article (Zwiech, 2010). This theory that is formulated by Parsons examines discrimination of women from the functional perspective and argues that family is a solidarity unit and husband and wife need to have equal status for the sake of solidarity; and the main factor determining discrimination against women are family and household duties which lessen employment opportunities and leads to occupational segregation by gender (Zwiech, 2010). The last theorist that Zwiech (2010) describes in this article is Acker (Zwiech, 2010). Acker refers to socio-cultural sex or gender, which socially construe notions of femininity and masculinity based on beliefs and stereotypes about difference between men and women (Zwiech, 2010). Acker’s theory argues that wages and salaries depend on gender due to the beliefs about the differences between men and women, as well as the division of economy sectors, the profession, and the workplaces goes hand in hand with pay inequality, even with social security benefits there are inequality in pay (Zwiech, 2010). Conflict theory As Zwiech (2010) provided readers with three different views of three different theorists, Zwiech (2009) offers readers additional insight of two more theorists, Turner and Musick (Zwiech, 2009). In this article Zwiech (2009) identifies some of the reasons behind discrimination against women and inequality between the sexes which one thought is that this division is enhanced by cultural beliefs from the age of hunting and gathering (Zwiech, 2009). Turner and Musick seen to think that disproportionately greater power, wealth, and prestige were enjoyed and are still enjoyed more by men in comparison to women; this is why some people are discriminated against as they are competitors in the labour market and accept lower pay than those received by dominating population (Zwiech, 2009). Addition to this thought, Turner and Musick believe that men may feel threaten by women as women constitute at least a half of the population and demanding equal rights would make men give up some of their privileges (Zwiech, 2009). Last, Turner and Musick imply that there is conflict when men and women do not agree with the cultural, political, and economic beliefs of society (Zwiech, 2009). VI. Legal Responsibility It were members of the legislation and members of Congress who established, created, and implemented U. S. employment discrimination laws to protect minorities who were discriminated against by white employers across the United States. Laws were established and enforced such as the 1913 Organic Act creating the U. S. Department of Labor, the 1938 Fair Labor Standard Act Codifies 40 Hour Workweek, the 1963 Equal Pay Act, and 1964 Title VII of the Civil Rights Act just to name a few (The U. S. Department of Labor Historical Timeline, n. d). Whereas, in the article ‘Equal Employment Responsibilities of Multinational Corporations’ written by Feltes, Robinson, and Fink (1992) which disclose to readers that until the passage of the Civil Rights Acts of 1991 U. S. corporations had no legal responsibility to follow the anti-discrimination tents of Title VII in foreign plants, but now these corporations can be sued by its disgruntled employees (Feltes, Robinson, Fink, 1992). Readers of this article can see that despite whether discrimination takes place here in the United States or abroad in one of the U. S. foreign corporations there are laws in place to protect the vulnerable. At the same time, in 1991 a bipartisan of coalition in Congress negotiated the Civil Rights Act, reaffirming and strengthening the protection for minorities (Shih-Hsueh Kleiner, 1998). Although, Kendrick (2012) conclude that for forty years, the prohibition on content discrimination has been a touchstone of the First Amendment law, while some believe that the merits of a content-discrimination principle has been unprincipled, unpredictable and deeply incoherent (Kendrick, 2012). Kendrick (2012) contends that the types of discrimination are suspect and the Court’s content jurisprudence sends a clear message in an ambiguous way as discrimination on the basis of subject matter and viewpoint is obviously suspect, and given the ambiguities inherent in the content discrimination the Court’s conception is hardly incontestable (Kendrick, 2012). VII. Ethical Responsibility Congressional stance regarding equal rights has been supported by the United States public democratic institutions, the legal status of the Civil Rights Act (including Title VII) has been reaffirm due to numerous court hearings and Congressional discussions as the continuing reaffirmation assume societal standards (Feltes, Robinson, Fink, 1992). Feltes, Robinson, and Fink (1992) describes several accords that were described by William C.Frederick as researcher, revealing four provisions, (1) the 1948 United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights that addresses equality of pay, nondiscriminatory employment policies, and the rights of individuals, (2) the Helsinki Final Act of 1973 that addresses nondiscriminatory employment policies and rights of individuals, (3) the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises in 1976 that addresses nondiscriminatory employment policies, and (4) the International Labor Office Tripartite Declaration of Principles Concerning Multinational Enterprises and Social Policy in 1977 that focused on equality of pay, nondiscriminatory employment policies, and rights of individuals (Feltes, Robinson, Fink, 1992). VIII. Conclusion For many years it has been said by many people that the United States has been and still is a land of immigrants; racial, ethnic, and immigrant backgrounds have been and continue to be of great significant. The only difference in today’s society and those of the past is the large body of laws, regulations, and court decisions intended to bring equal opportunity to the workplace, fair wages, safety, and rights for collective bargaining (Skrentny, 2007). Still, discrimination exists more today than in years ago, as discrimination today is more subtle and less obvious, it does not have its bold ugly face as it did in the early 1950s and 1960s. Discrimination and inequalities still exist in today’s society as before and while there are laws that are suppose to protect those who are the underrepresented there are still ethnic minorities who are more affected by this ugly monster name discrimination. It is noted in Khosrovani and Ward (2011) article ‘AFRICAN AMERICANS’ PERCEPTIONS OF ACCESS TO WORKPLACE OPPORTUNITIES: A SURVEY OF EMPLOYEES IN HOUSTON, TEXAS’ that discrimination and inequalities impact gender and race in the workplace (Khosrovani Ward, 2011). Literature about women’s inequalities between 1940 and 1989 showed how African American women may have made great progress nearing the gap of their white counterparts, but today African American women are finding themselves in subordinate status positions making lower pay (Khosrovani Ward, 2011). As there are many theories why discrimination exist no one really knows for sure why, as there are some scholars who seen to think that economics contribute to prejudice and discrimination others view it as in born and cultural acquired practices. Yuan and Kleiner (1998) stated that while†¦ â€Å"The U. S. Constitution and Civil Rights Act of 1964 were established to protect everyone from discrimination on the basis of race, national origin, color, or religion; but in reality people have to speak out to insure that justice is served (Khosrovani Ward, 2011). How to cite Discrimination in the Workplace, Papers Discrimination in the Workplace Free Essays Discrimination is the grounds described by the law, they are personal characteristics that people have. Anti-discrimination and equal opportunity laws make it unlawful for anyone to be treated unfairly on certain grounds, such as age, sex, pregnancy or sexuality. There are differences in the ground covered by state and territory legislation. We will write a custom essay sample on Discrimination in the Workplace or any similar topic only for you Order Now Direct discrimination is when an employer takes adverse action against an employee because of that person’s race, color, sex or age. Marietta has young children. Her manager says she will not get a promotion because her family responsibilities may make her unreliable or unable to do a demanding job is direct discrimination. Indirect discrimination is when a work requirement, condition or practice seems the same for all staff, but actually disadvantages certain people because such things as a disability, their race, color, sex or age. The ad for a retail job in a clothing store says that only people who have a driver’s license should apply, even though driving is not part of the job. Sandra has good retail experience but can’t get the job because she has a disability and can’t get a driver’s license is an indirect discrimination. Systemic discrimination is widespread and long-term. It happens to a group of people because of a shared characteristic such as disability, race, color or sex. It is often part of a workplace policy, practice or culture. A large company with a stairway entrance doesn’t provide another way of getting into the building for employees with physical disabilities which means they can’t get into the building without help; this is a form of systemic discrimination. Sex discrimination involves treating someone; an applicant or employee unfavorably because of that person’s sex. The law forbids discrimination when it comes to any aspect of employment, including hiring, firing, pay, job assignments, promotions, layoff, training, fringe benefits, and any other term or condition of employment. Discrimination against an individual because that person is transgender is discrimination because of sex in violation of Title VII. This is also known as gender identity discrimination. Prizes of a different value are given for male and female competition in the same club is a form of sex discrimination. Age discrimination prohibits discrimination against all individuals age 40 years or older working for employers having 20 or more workers. Most employees cannot be forced to retire at a specific age. A club refuses to clear players to other teams because they are under 21. Marital status discrimination occurs when an employer treats a worker differently because of the worker’s marital status. If an applicant or employee is married, widowed, divorced, single or unmarried with a same-sex or opposite-sex partner, and the employer uses that information in making decisions about hiring, benefits, promotions, discipline or termination. A player is deliberately excluded from team activities and social functions after she divorces her husband who is a club official is marital status discrimination. Pregnancy discrimination requires that any employer with 15 or more employees treat maternity leave the same as other personal or medical leaves. Pregnancy discrimination act requires employers to treat pregnant employees the same as non-pregnant employees with similar abilities or inabilities. A woman is dropped from her softball team when she reveals she is pregnant. Racial discrimination occurs when an individual is subjected to unequal treatment because of their actual or perceived race. Race/color discrimination also can involve treating someone unfavorably because the person is married to or associated with a person of a certain race or color or because of a person’s connection with a race-based organization or group, or an organization or group that is generally associated with people of a certain color. Discrimination can occur when the victim and the person who inflicted the discrimination are the same race or color. An aboriginal player is overlooked for team selection, due to his race. Sexuality discrimination applies to goods and services and all employment and vocational training and includes recruitment, terms and conditions, promotions, transfers, dismissals and training. The act makes it unlawful on the grounds of sexual orientation to; discriminate directly against anyone and to treat them less favorably than others because of their actual or perceived sexual orientation, discriminate indirectly to apply a criterion, provision or practice which disadvantages people of a particular sexual orientation, unless it can be objectively justified, and victimize someone because they have made or intend to make a compliant or allegation in relation to a complaint of discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation. A footballer is ridiculed by his team mates after his homosexuality is disclosed. Impairment or disability discrimination is treating you unfairly or badly because of your impairment. Discrimination such as this may be unlawful depending on the circumstances. Discrimination on the basis of impairment can happen at work, school or college, in a public venue in a shop or a restaurant, looking for accommodation, buying property, applying for credit, insurance or a loan, or dealing with tradespeople, businesses or state or local government. Because discrimination occurs most often in the workplace, employers should offer an equal opportunity to everyone for job interviews, promotion, transfer or training. In other words, employers need to consider you on what you can do, not on what they assume you cannot do. A junior player is overlooked because of her mild epilepsy. Religious discrimination involves treating a person, an applicant or employee unfavorably because of his or her religious beliefs. The law protects not only people who belong to traditional, organized religions, such as Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism, but also others who have sincerely held religious, ethical or moral beliefs. Religious discrimination can also involve treating someone differently because that person is married to or associated with an individual of a particular religion or because of his or her connection with a religious organization or group. A woman is not allowed to participate because she is wearing a hijab. Although sexual harassment is one of the biggest issues facing employers these days it’s not the only type of discrimination you need to be concerned about. Under the Civil Rights Act of 1991, employees who believe they were victims of job discrimination due to race, religion, sex or disability is entitled to a trial by jury. While companies with fewer than 15 employees are generally exempt from federal discrimination laws, most states have their own laws prohibiting discrimination, which, in addition to protecting a wider range of categories of employees, include smaller businesses within their scope and procedural and evidentiary standards more favorable to claimants. A male tennis coach keeps putting his hand on a woman’s bottom during coaching sessions, making her feel very uncomfortable. Victimization is where an employee is singled out for using their workplace complaints procedures or exercising their legal rights. An employer must not treat a worker less favorably because s/he has complained of discrimination or given evidence supporting another worker. There is protection for the worker if she/he makes an allegation in good faith of anything which would be unlawful race discrimination. It is also unlawful for an employer to penalize a worker because she/he anticipates that the worker is likely to allege race discrimination. The law protects you from discrimination so that it is illegal for traders to behave in certain ways. For example, they should not directly discriminate against you by treating you worse than someone else. Discrimination is the prejudicial and/or distinguishing treatment of an individual based on their actual or perceived membership in a certain group or category, in a way that is worse than the way people are usually treated. It involves the group’s initial reaction or interaction, influencing the individual’s actual behavior towards the group or the group leader, restricting members of one group from opportunities or privileges that are available to another group, leading to the exclusion of the individual or entities based on logical or irrational decision making. Discriminatory traditions, policies, ideas, practices, and laws exist in many countries and institutions in every part of the world, even in ones where discrimination is generally looked down upon. In some places, controversial attempts such as quotas or affirmative action have been used to benefit those believed to be current or past victims of discrimination but have sometimes been called reverse discrimination themselves. â€Å"Sometimes, I feel discriminated against, but it does not make me angry. It merely astonishes me. How can any deny themselves the pleasure of my company? It’s beyond me. † ? Zora Neale Hurston How to cite Discrimination in the Workplace, Papers Discrimination in The Workplace Free Essays For years people have been treated differently based upon their class, race, and gender. This has cause discrimination to take place and destroy people lives mentally in the work environment. Discrimination is unequal treatment of any group of people. We will write a custom essay sample on Discrimination in The Workplace or any similar topic only for you Order Now This could apply to race, ethnic group, gender, and age (Discrimination, 2011). It has impact one’s social class in the workplace, keeping certain races from establishing deceased paying jobs, and only providing genders with limited job positions. In this paper the writer will be discussing the act of discrimination in the workplace. Social Class The social class was defined by the political power and social status of one’s heritage. Which there are three types of class structures lower, middle, and upper (The Social Organization of Work, pg. 76). The lower class has no job security due to not having any funds saved or assets (The Social Organization of Work, pg. 76). Lower-classman is bound to work at poorly paid jobs such as McDonalds and Burger King. Jobs like these offer no benefits for example health care and pay tuition. If these individuals are laid off or injured the welfare of their families could be in danger (The Social Organization of Work, pg 76). The lower class has a small percentage of offering their children an advantage to a secure job. The lower class is less likely to vote due to the lack of power they posses (The Social Organization of, pg 76). How to cite Discrimination in The Workplace, Papers Discrimination in the Workplace Free Essays Discrimination in the Workplace According to Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, Discrimination charges were up slightly from last year from 99,922 to 99,947. In terms of the volume of charges by protected class, the highest percentages were: †¢Retaliation – 37. 4% †¢Race – 35. We will write a custom essay sample on Discrimination in the Workplace or any similar topic only for you Order Now 4% †¢Sex/Gender – 28. 4% †¢ADA/Disability – 25. 8% Nine out of ten times when you go into a business meeting, the person you are encountering for the first time has already formed an impression of you based on your communication with them up to that point. Your religion, race, height, nationality and even your gender are factors that most people make quick judgments about. Unfortunately, many of these judgments are bias and assumptions. According to Oxford dictionary, discrimination is the treatment or consideration of, or making a distinction in favor of or against, a person or thing based on the class, or category to which that person or thing belongs rather on the individual merit. My reasons for this message are to point out the effects of racial discrimination and how it can be prevented. Discrimination against people with different physical appearance, mental illness, or a different personal preference such as homosexuality is a position where people should never find themselves in. Discrimination affects people from all over the world. People of all ethnicities and from all different walks of life are influenced in some way by workplace discrimination. † One of the most common elements discriminated against is a person’s ethnicity, or their race. This is called Racial Discrimination. We’ve all heard the statistics about first impressions. When you meet someone for the first time, according to research at University of Pennsylvania 7% of their impression of you is based on what you say, 38% on how you say it, and a massive 55% on their appearance and manner. No wonder we worry about choosing our clothes for that all important meeting or job interview. What are the reasons in society that causes prejudice and discrimination? Consequently problems with discrimination are from parental discrimination, traditional labeling, and unfair generalizations. No one is born racist, sexist, or homophobic. Some parents aise their children with negative beliefs about others. This is one of the reasons why it is so hard to get rid of discrimination in our workplace. A parent who is an extremist will more than likely have negative effects on how a child will treat others. In addition traditional labeling is another cause of discrimination. Discriminatory labels have been passed down from generation to generation. For example many child ren engage in activities such as breaking windows, stealing fruit from other people’s trees, climbing into other people’s yards, or playing hooky from school. In rich neighborhoods, these acts may be viewed by parents, teachers, and police as innocent aspects of the process of growing up. In poor areas, on the other hand, these same activities might be seen as tendencies towards juvenile delinquency. This sort of labeling can easily lead to workplace bias. Lastly, unfair generalizations are another cause of discrimination. After a single person of a race or sex does something injustice, people tend to group the entire race or sex with that single person’s flawed actions. This tends to happen to minorities quite often in the workplace and also in the social life. All these things that I have listed play a significant role in molding and shaping a person character. Now I’m going to talk about the effects of racial discrimination. Discrimination at work can lead to decreased job performance and lower productivity. Workplace discrimination can impact the level of employee spirits. It goes without saying that if you witness discriminatory acts or are a victim of discrimination, the experience can be crushing. Employees who are exposed to discrimination can begin to surfer the effects of disrespect even if they are not the main target of discrimination. In addition, researchers find evidence that discrimination has a negative impact on one’s mental health. Results from the study â€Å"Does Perceived Discrimination Affect Health, Longitudinal Relationships Between Work Discrimination and Women’s Physical and Emotional Health† reveal that women were being tested and their level of stress increased after experiencing job discrimination. In another study testing African American women, perceived racial discrimination at work led to higher levels of depression and decreased levels of psychological well-being. These studies suggest that mental stress is caused by work discrimination. Another effect of racial discrimination is that it damages the business reputation. The U. S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission website contains information about discrimination lawsuits, settlements and awards. Newspapers publish stories of high-profile cases and jury trials awarding damages to plaintiffs in discrimination lawsuits. Rumors and truths spread throughout the business community, and potential applicants spread the word about businesses purported to engage in discriminatory employment practices. Allegations of discrimination can even affect the relationship between a company and its suppliers and vendors. All of this takes its toll on an organization’s business reputation, its ability to recruit talent and, ultimately, its profitability. The saying â€Å"all publicity is good publicity† doesn’t apply when the publicity is about discrimination. On the contrary there are solutions to these problems. These steps will help guide our heart and our morals. There are many ways but I selected two main guides to help us. One way to start the change is by renewing of your minds. We have to change our views by disciplining ourselves. Systematic judgments require more controlled processing and tend to occur when forming impressions of others that can affect our happiness or welfare. Learn to interact with people more on a personal level. Another way to stop discrimination is to report it. Any individual who is the victim of racial discrimination should not allow it to continue. You can report discrimination by documenting the incidents. Next you should report to a supervisor and show him the documentations. Lastly complain to EECO. File a report immediately then wait for EEOC to get back to you so afterwards you can get permission to take legal action if the discrimination is clear. Exercise commitment and patience in your journey to remove stereotyping from the mind and heart. In conclusion, with this in mind learning to dig deep from other people will bring humility. We can remove the snap judgments we make about people because someday we might under authority or be in the position of authority. Because discriminatory behavior can hardly be seen I challenge you to be cautious about what is said or done in the workplace. We can avoid being the attacker or the victim in this situation. These indications I listed are only of the few of our automatic notions about others. We should have an equal shot to an opportunity that is presented to us. ? Bibliography The Beginners Guide To Body Language. † Photograph. http://sapientology. com/body-language/how-to-read-body-language/. Matthew Michael. 2010. Web. 7 Nov 2011. . Haworth, Abigail. â€Å"Forced to Be Fat . † Marie Claire. 21072011: 1-3. Web. 7 Nov. 2011. . (Haworth 1-3) Anderson, M. L. and Taylor, H. F. (2009). Sociology: The Essentials. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth. Giddens, A. (1991). Introduction to Sociology. New York: W. W. Norton Company. VerBruggen, Robert. â€Å"Appearance Discrimination’: The New Racism?. † National Review Online. 06292010: 1-4. Web. 7 Nov. 2011. . (VerBruggen 1-4) America Obsession with beauty. † Photograph. The Fashion Spot. Randle Lee. Jelosoft Enterprises, 2008. Web. 8 Nov 2011. . â€Å"Oxford Dictionaries. † Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University, 01082011. Web. 8 Nov 2011. . Pincus, Debbie . â€Å"Control Freak vs. Pushover Parenting: Why Neither Works . Empowering Parents. n. page. Print. . U. S Equal Employment Opportunity Commision . Privacy Policy. Facts About Race/Color Discrimination. 2012. Web. . Daeragon , Beth . â€Å"NH Employment Law Blog. † NH Employment Law Blog. . (2012): . Web. 19 Nov. 2012. . Pavalko, Eliza, Krysia Mossakowski, and Vanessa Hamilton. â€Å"Does Perceived Discrimination Affect Health? Longitudinal Relationships Betwe en Work Discrimination and Women’s Physical and Emotional Health. † 2001. Maduff and Maduff. (2008) Discrimination. Maduff and Maduff: A Civil Rights Law Firm. 2008 How to cite Discrimination in the Workplace, Papers

Saturday, April 25, 2020

The Injustice of Plastics Essay Example

The Injustice of Plastics Essay Disadvantages of Plastics are 1. Flammable – This is definitely an advantage in that they can be melted down, however smoldering plastics can release toxic fumes into the environment. 2. Cost of Recycling – While recycling is a plus, recycling is a very costly endeavor. 3. Volume – In the United States 20% of our landfill is made up of plastics. As more products are being made of plastics, where will this lead us in the future? 4. Durability – This is an advantage as well as a disadvantage. Plastics are extremely durable, which means that they last a long time. Those plastics in the landfill will be there for years. Plastics make our lives easier, however is their cost on the environment worth it? We can only hope that soon someone will invent a way to safely and cheaply melt and reuse plastics. A plastic material is any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic amorphous solids[citation needed] used in the manufacture of industrial products. Plastics are typically polymers of high molecular mass, and may contain other substances to improve performance and/or reduce costs. Monomers of plastic are either natural or synthetic organic compounds. We will write a custom essay sample on The Injustice of Plastics specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on The Injustice of Plastics specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on The Injustice of Plastics specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer The word plastic is derived from the Greek (plastikos) meaning capable of being shaped or molded, from (plastos) meaning molded. [1][2] It refers to their malleability, or plasticity during manufacture, that allows them to be cast, pressed, or extruded into a variety of shapes—such as films, fibers, plates, tubes, bottles, boxes, and much more. The common word plastic should not be confused with the technical adjective plastic, which is applied to any material which undergoes a permanent change of shape (plastic deformation) when strained beyond a certain point. Aluminum, for instance, is plastic in this sense, but not a plastic in the common sense; in contrast, in their finished forms, some plastics will break before deforming and therefore are not plastic in the technical sense. There are two types of plastics: thermoplastics and thermosetting polymers. Thermoplastics will soften and melt if enough heat is applied; examples are polyethylene, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)[3]. Thermosets can melt and take shape once; after they have solidified, they stay solid. Overview Plastics can be classified by chemical structure, namely the molecular units that make up the polymers backbone and side chains. Some important groups in these classifications are the acrylics, polyesters, silicones, polyurethanes, and halogenated plastics. Plastics can also be classified by the chemical process used in their synthesis, such as condensation, polyaddition, and cross-linking. [4] Other classifications are based on qualities that are relevant for manufacturing or product design. Examples of such classes are the thermoplastic and thermoset, elastomer, structural, biodegradable, and electrically conductive. Plastics can also be classified by various physical properties, such as density, tensile strength, glass transition temperature, and resistance to various chemical products. Due to their relatively low cost, ease of manufacture, versatility, and imperviousness to water, plastics are used in an enormous and expanding range of products, from paper clips to spaceships. They have already displaced many traditional materials, such as wood; stone; horn and bone; leather; paper; metal; glass; and ceramic, in most of their former uses. The use of plastics is constrained chiefly by their organic chemistry, which seriously limits their hardness, density, and their ability to resist heat, organic solvents, oxidation, and ionizing radiation. In particular, most plastics will melt or decompose when heated to a few hundred degrees celsius. [5] While plastics can be made electrically conductive to some extent, they are still no match for metals like copper or aluminum. citation needed] Plastics are still too expensive to replace wood, concrete and ceramic in bulky items like ordinary buildings, bridges, dams, pavement, and railroad ties. Chemical structure Common thermoplastics range from 20,000 to 500,000 amu, while thermosets are assumed to have infinite molecular weight. These chains are made up of many repeating molecular units, known as repeat units, deri ved from monomers; each polymer chain will have several thousand repeating units. The vast majority of plastics are composed of polymers of carbon and hydrogen alone or with oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine or sulfur in the backbone. Some of commercial interests are silicon based. ) The backbone is that part of the chain on the main path linking a large number of repeat units together. To customize the properties of a plastic, different molecular groups hang from the backbone (usually they are hung as part of the monomers before linking monomers together to form the polymer chain). This fine tuning of the properties of the polymer by repeating units molecular structure has allowed plastics to become such an indispensable part of twenty first-century world. Some plastics are partially crystalline and partially amorphous in molecular structure, giving them both a melting point (the temperature at which the attractive intermolecular forces are overcome) and one or more glass transitions (temperatures above which the extent of localized molecular flexibility is substantially increased). The so-called semi-crystalline plastics include polyethylene, polypropylene, poly (vinyl chloride), polyamides (nylons), polyesters and some polyurethanes. Many plastics are completely amorphous, such as polystyrene and its copolymers, poly (methyl methacrylate), and all thermosets. Almost every market that you go today, you will see people carrying their shopping items in plastic bags. Right from food items to clothes to shoes, there is hardly any item that we do not use a plastic bag to carry. However, before stuffing your home with different styles, colors and shapes of plastic bags, have you every considered the dangers that are inherent in using them? No? Then, reading through this article is a must for you. Go through the following lines and explore the disadvantages of plastic bags. After reading them, we are sure that you will prefer sticking to paper bags and the like. Dangers Of Using Plastic Bags Environmental Damage Plastic bags have been known to cause a lot of environmental damage. A single plastic bag can take up to 1000 years, to decay completely. This makes the bags stay in environments longer, in turn leading to great build-up on the natural landscape (much more than degradable materials like paper). In other words, the more plastic bags you use, the greater the chances of environmental damage. Threat To Animal Life As per Marrickville Council of Australia, as many as 100,000 whales, turtles and birds die have been reported to die every year, mainly because of plastic in their environment. Plastic bags not only have adverse effects on our natural habitats, but have also been found to be responsible for the death of many animals, mainly on account of the suffocation encountered on eating them. Suffocation Not only animals, infants and young children have also been reported to have lost their life, on account of plastic bags. Since plastic bags are thin and airtight as well, children often end up blocking their mouths and nostrils with them. In case they are not being monitored by an adult, this leads to suffocation and, in some cases, even death. Pollution Plastic bags are extremely durable. In case you are thinking of this as an advantage, just bring to mind an image of the huge landfill that you visited on the city outskirts, the other day. In most probability, majority of the rubbish present there will comprise of plastic bags only. In other words, plastic bags have led to a great increase in the pollution levels. Fumes Since plastic bags are not bio-degradable, the only way to get rid of them is to burn them up. Though lighting a match to them is easy, it has more than its fair share of disadvantages. The biggest of them is that smoldering plastics can release toxic fumes into the environment, in turn taking the air pollution to much higher levels. Non-renewable One of the main disadvantages of plastic bags is that they are not renewable. The reason behind this is that they are made of petrochemicals, a non-renewable source of energy. They can be recycled, but not as easily as paper bags. Plastic bags can last for as much as hundred of years. In other words, long after you are no more, the plastic bag used by you will be in existence. Plastics are manufactured from petroleum. This brings a host of issues (destruction of habitat, extraction of crude oil, security issues from the volatile countries where oil is produced, processing of petroleum, chemical manipulation into various types of plastics). The manufacture involves many chemicals, many of which have not been sufficiently tested for their toxicological impact on humans or animals. The final plastic product is often a chemical entity that in and of itself has had insufficient toxicological and ecotoxicological testing. An example would be PVC, forms of which are banned in Europe but exist widely in childrens toys in America. Recent controversies over plastic bottles (many toxicologists recommending not re-using plastic water bottles and not storing food in tupperware) have highlighted the potential risks. Exacerbating the problem is that science is only now advancing to where it can detect plastic components in human blood and then trace concentrations and link them to human ailments and diseases. The plastics industry itself often spins plastic and related plastic chemicals into a variety of products, some of which are hazardous and controversial (Teflon, PVC, Polyethylene, polystyrene, various silicones in body and hair care). Plastic-producing companies are often chemical companies or subsidiaries of chemical companies, both with poor track records when it comes to their adherence to regulatory compliance and their willingness to perform toxicological analysis on the products they make. Plastics often leech component chemicals, including hazardous chemicals, through common temperature changes. It is for this reason that toxicologists do not recommend storing very cold foods in plastics or heating foods (microwaving especially) in plastics. Plastics are durable materials. Thus, they are hard to eliminate once used and create tremendous waste. While some common plastics can be recycled (#1 and #2 plastics used in common soda and milk bottles), the vast majority cannot. They take up a lot of space in landfills and create air pollution when incinerated. The Disadvantages of Plastic Skylights Although plastic skylights are safer and sturdier than glass skylights, they do pose several long term disadvantages. Firstly, because they are made in single sheets, they can only be curved or bent in one area, which limits design options. Secondly, all plastics deteriorate in strength and light transmission as time passes, due to ultraviolet rays, heat and oxidation (and none can be entirely prevented). And finally, the life and service of plastic materials is highly unpredictable. Therefore choosing the plastics you will use for a plastic skylight requires much research and first hand knowledge. This is where Roof 101 can help – our contractors have worked with all kinds of plastics in plastic skylights, and their first hand experience could greatly assist you in reaching a decision.