Monday, August 24, 2020
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Nonbelievers are God's instruments, and them, however everything too. Note what the Apostle Paul has written in the Bible: For he saith unto Moses, 'I will show leniency toward whom I will show kindness, and I will have empathy on whom I will have sympathy.' So then it isn't of him that willeth, nor of him that runneth, however of God that sheweth benevolence. For the sacred writing saith unto Pharaoh, 'In any event, for this equivalent reason have I raised thee up, that I may shew my capacity in thee, and that my name may be pronounced all through all the Earth.' Therefore hath he kindness on whom he will show leniency, and whom he will he hardeneth. Romans 9:15-18. There are different sections, however until further notice let us assess the above entry from the King James Version: 1. God shows kindness toward those whom He needs to show benevolence toward. He has sympathy/love on those whom He needs to adore. 2. Man can attempt to accomplish something, however it is God who has settled on the choices and it is God who pre-destinated all things. 3. God pre-predetermined everything of what will befall them. 4. The Egyptian Pharaoh was made for God's motivations. The intentions were: God indicated His capacity and God's name was proclaimed all through all the Earth. 5. Pharaoh likely didn't have the foggiest idea about God's actual goals. Regardless of whether Pharaoh realized what it was, he was as yet incapable to oppose what has been pre-ordained by the Creator. Let us investigate what occurred in the book of Exodus: Also, Moses and Aaron went in unto Pharaoh, and they did as such as the Lord had instructed: and Aaron cast down his bar before Pharaoh, and before his workers, and it turned into a snake. At that point Pharaoh additionally called the savvy men and the alchemists: presently the entertainers of Egypt, they likewise did in like way with their charms. For they cast down each man his pole, and they became snakes: yet Aaron's pole gobbled up their poles. What's more, he solidified Pharaoh's heart, that he noticed not unto them, as the Lord has said. Also, the Lord said unto Moses, 'Pharaoh's heart is solidified, he refuseth to release the individuals.' Exodus 7:10-14. 1. Pharaoh saw the intensity of the Lord, and would not submit in any event, when Aaron's pole gulped the entertainer's bars. 2. God himself solidified the core of Pharaoh. See likewise Exodus 8:15 and different stanzas which show that Pharaoh's heart was solidified.
Thursday, July 16, 2020
Stand Out from the Crowd Differentiation is the principle of setting a company apart based on specific elements of the company. For the entrepreneur, understanding how to best differentiate a new company may be a source of frustration and confusion. Studying the strategies and methods of successful companies can help provide guidance for any company who wishes to take their business to the next level. © Shutterstock.com | Phonlamai PhotoThis article will provide 1) a general overview of differentiation strategies and then 2) study examples of differentiation strategies used by: a) Virgin Airlines, b) Etsy, c) Walmart, d) Apple, and e) Nike.GENERAL OVERVIEW OF DIFFERENTIATIONBefore examining the differentiation strategies of different companies, it is helpful to understand the concept of differentiation. When used as part of a larger competitive strategy, differentiation can be essential in propelling a company to the next level of growth.There are several elements of differentiation: pricing, product and organization.Pricing is the function of income and profit â" the determining factor in the support of the organization. It can fluctuate based on supply and demand, and can be an indicator of the customerâs ideal value for the product. Companies that differentiate based on price can either determine to offer the lowest price, or can attempt to establish superiority through hig her prices.Another area of differentiation is through product offerings. Innovative products that meet customer needs can be an area where a company has an advantage over competitors. The pursuit of new product offerings can be costly â" research and development, as well as production and marketing costs can all add expenses to a company before the product has even been offered to the customer, making this one of the riskier forms of differentiation. The payoff, however, can be great as customers flock to be among the first to have the new product.Organizational differentiation is yet another form of advantage. Maximizing the power of a brand, or using the specific advantages that an organization possesses can be instrumental to a companyâs success. Location advantages, name recognition and customer loyalty can all provide additional ways for a company differentiate itself from the competition.EXAMPLES OF CORPORATE DIFFERENTIATIONVirgin AirlinesSpearheaded by Richard Branson, Vir gin Airlines is one of the multiple industries grouped under the âVirginâ label. Described by Branson as a company known for âinnovation, quality and a sense of funâ, Virgin Airlines has taken to the skies in an effort to make air travel affordable and enjoyable. Virgin Atlantic, established in 1984, was born one night when Bransonâs flight to the Virgin Islands was cancelled. Undaunted, he charted a plane and offered his fellow travelers a seat on the new plane for $29. His airline was born. Virgin America started in 2004, operating in the United States and other western countries. Virginâs business model is offering inexpensive fares, full service flights and outstanding customer service.Strategy UsedVirginâs differentiation strategy is two-fold: pricing and service. By reducing the costs associated with air travel, Virgin Airlines is able to remain competitive with the cost-cutting airline companies. Lower costs, however, donât translate into fewer services â" Vi rgin is a full service airline with on-plane WIFI, touchscreen seatback entertainment, and full service meals available with roomy cabins.Through acquisitions and subsidiaries, Virgin is able to operate in different markets around the world, capitalizing on the Virgin name and promoting their services. Establishing a successful airline company brings new sets of regulations and procedures, depending on what country the airline is operating in. Virgin has remained consistent in maintaining their business model: competitive pricing, excellent customer service; however, the airline has had its ups and downs in the 30 years it has been airborne.A clear strategy has enabled Virgin to maintain their presence in the global air travel market: remain true to the Virgin brand. Promoting the brand and capitalizing on the Virgin name has been essential to the success of the company. That helped to springboard the airline to popularity, but the well-positioned airline is relying on their sound b usiness strategy to keep them at the top of the airline list.Drivers of success/failureTheir two strategies: low costs and excellent service are both a part of their successes, and their failures. By offering customers low costs, they are in direct competition with other low-fare airline services and customers have multiple options. The extra amenities and customer service that is exemplary are often the deciding factor in a customerâs choice to select Virgin over another airline. (A stunning affirmation that Bransonâs plan works.)However, in the United States where regulations are strict and competition is fierce, the market is not as easy to conquer. Because of the high number of amenities the airline offers, the costs associated with the airline are high and offer lower profit margins. The power of the Virgin brand is compelling, however, and the Virgin vision is for a long-term drive to success. In the eyes of the corporation, the slow and steady race to profitability is pre ferable over the short (and short-lived) success.ETSYOnline artisan store and shopping gallery, Etsy offers its users the chance to showcase their handmade wares and sell them to customers around the world. From their beginnings as a crafterâs paradise, Etsy has carved out a niche company through sales of craft supplies as well as homemade items. Through Etsy, a community of crafters has found a home on the internet and the world has been opened to the amateur crafter who wishes to sell their products. The Etsy business model brings together the craftiness of individuals and the business savvy of investors who are confident the Do It Yourself crowd will also be members of the Let Someone Else Do It crowd.Strategy UsedEtsy is relying on the diversity of the products they offer to differentiate themselves from the hundreds of available craft sites online. By limiting their product offerings to craft items, they are targeting a specific portion of the market, giving them the edge the y need to stand out from the crowd.Drivers of success/failureEtsy has several distinct features working in its favor. Price point is a key factor in the success of the online store: a majority of Etsyâs customers spend between $15.00 and $20.00. They charge a relatively low fee to vendors for handling the payment transaction, and a small fee is charged per item listed in the crafterâs âstoreâ. With low fees, the company is able to remain competitive with other online shopping services such as eBay and Amazon. A wide variety of products is available, leaving customers a well-designed website to browse through and highlight on social media.While the company has enjoyed success since the company began in 2005, there are a few elements of their strategy that have the potential of becoming a failure. In addition, their success has created problems for the artisans who are unable to keep up with the higher number of demands. A majority of the artisans on Etsy are simply hobbyists who craft in their spare time. The growing sales figures are causing the crafters to work longer hours and are maximizing the number of items that they can personally produce. The company recently made changes to their user agreement; allowing products to be sold that were designed by an Etsy member, but may have been produced by someone else. The âmass productionâ of craft items is a slippery slope â" at what point is an item considered handmade?Etsy is at a crossroads and must decide to remain true to their original intent: providing a âvirtual craft fairâ for artists or seek higher fortunes through expanded offerings and growth.WALMARTThe vision of Sam Walton was to build a company that offered convenience and low prices. His original intent has driven the company to huge financial gains, and the company has not changed their business model. Through the last twenty years, the company has built massive super stores, offering everything from automotive supplies to grocerie s and clothing. Recently, the company has expanded its one-stop shopping center empire to include small, neighborhood market stores.Strategy UsedWalmart has a clear differentiation strategy: pricing. Everything that Walmart does is specifically selected to keep prices low. Their famous âroll-backâ pricing strategy is designed to constantly monitor competitor pricing and offer a lower price. Through purchasing, shipping, warehousing and retail marketing, Walmart is standing out by consistently giving customers exactly what they want or need at a lower cost.Drivers of success/failureThe market for low-cost retail stores is always in constant upheaval. There are several competitors in the market, although few can come close to the scope of Walmartâs organization. The distribution channels that Walmart has put into place are one of the key factors in their success. With a network of warehouses, shipping services and innovative stocking methods, Walmart remains a market giant for c onvenience and price. Developing their own integrated systems for ordering, shipping and delivering, Walmart is able to maintain their low prices.While their market saturation can be seen in the number of Walmart locations, their continued expansion can also be an indicator of its failure. Walmart is often not received well in smaller communities, where residents are concerned about local businesses being affected, environmental impact and traffic concerns in the areas that Walmart is built.In addition, because Walmart bases their differentiation on pricing, other companies are continually trying to compete with their low prices, causing the company to find new ways to lower prices. There is constant pressure on the corporation to buy massive quantities to keep their stores stocked and prices low.In spite of these difficulties, however, Walmart remains a powerful market force in every geographical area that they do business in. The addition of the market stores has added additional opportunities for the corporation to attract new customers, and the buying process for food items has created new, lower price point products.[slideshare id=27661229doc=wal-martscostleadershipstrategy-131028142501-phpapp02w=640h=330]APPLEOnce known only for their âitâs not IBMâ computers, Apple has grown into a major electronics company that offers everything from personal electronics to televisions. Offering innovative products and creating a network of services that work together, Apple has developed some of the worldâs most daring technology. Through their business model of innovation and design, they have branded their company as the forerunner in marketing, service and sales.Strategy UsedApple has a multi-faceted differentiation strategy. They are innovators who constantly push the limits of products and services, a strategy that is hugely successful. In addition, they are relentless in the pursuit of excellent customer service. Finally, they capitalize on the brand its elf, which has become a part of the culture through their advertising campaigns and product placement.Drivers of Success/failuresOne of the most successful drivers of Appleâs strategy is the creation of their own âecosystemâ. The Apple line is designed to integrate among other Apple products, seamlessly sharing media across devices. This ecosystem provides users with the ability to share their music files from their iPod to their iPhone to their PC or Apple TV. Leaving the ecosystem would not only be costly, it would be cumbersome to try to assimilate the same ease of use â" a fact that Apple uses to their advantage.Another important driver of success is the innovation that Apple has continued to demonstrate. With constant release of new, advanced offerings, Apple has maintained their position as the leader of the technology market and can draw thousands to their door in anticipation of the release of a new product. To wield that power, it is evident the company has mastered the art of the customer hook. Through skillful advertising and branding, Apple has set the standard for other technology companies to follow, though few have managed to come close to their level of success.Interestingly, another aspect of Apple that has led to its overwhelming success is the companyâs willingness to fail. There have been several âbad Applesâ in the line of Apple products: MobileMe, and Ping, for example. These services were not well received and did not perform well in the Apple lineup, so Apple pulled them from their offerings. The company shows little resistance to pulling these âfailuresâ from the market, but doesnât hesitate to find better use for their technology. The technology was reused and repacked, finding its way into the iTunes market and as part of the basis for âthe Cloudâ. By being willing to fail, Apple demonstrates their commitment to finding new ways of solving problems. NIKEAthletic gear provider Nike is considered the premier athl ete supplier for serious athletes. Their products include athletic footwear, workout and performance clothes as well as athletic accessories such as gym bags, headbands, balls and more. Their business model is simple: offer high quality sports materials and customers will be willing to pay higher prices.Strategy usedNikeâs differentiation strategy is to establish the company as the standard in athletic wear. By focusing on their product line, they are able to produce high quality products that meet customer expectations. Nikeâs product line is not wide: they offer athletic shoes, workout clothes and a very limited number of additional products. Their focus is clear: give the athlete the equipment they need to succeed. This single-minded focus has allowed them to develop efficient networks of suppliers and manufacturers who can provide high quality materials.Drivers of success/failuresThe most prominent driver for Nikeâs success is their distinctive marketing strategy. Nike has established itself not only as a leading brand for athletes, but also as a leading fashion brand. Through identification with athletes, customers are compelled to purchase their athletic wear for competitive and recreational use.Another driver of success is their commitment to research and development. Within the athletic market there is a high level of competition. To remain a leader in the industry, Nike must constantly be innovating with new and improved tools to help the athlete perform at their peak. Improved athletic wear, the partnership with Apple for fitness training, the ability to personalize workout shoes are all examples of the innovative products that Nike has developed. By maintaining this level of innovation, Nike will be constantly in the front of the competition.One area that could become a driver of failure is the higher price point of Nikeâs products. The availability of other options in the athletic wear department gives customers the opportunity to select a product based on price rather than options. For the cost-conscious customer, the choice will almost always be a company other than Nike. To retain their foothold in the market, Nike must establish a way to lower production costs and offer their lineup of products at a lower cost.[slideshare id=7542006doc=competitiveadvantagefornike-110406200840-phpapp02w=640h=330]
Thursday, May 21, 2020
The key concept to be explored is genre and my investigation will revolve around focused research on the expansive genre of cult film, as I look to not only elaborate on it, but also try to clarify it. Utilising the work of theorists Sconce, Fiske, Austin and many others, I will base my research around two contrasting texts that are both connected by cult film Ã¢â¬â Nicolas Winding RefnÃ¢â¬â¢s Drive and David FincherÃ¢â¬â¢s Fight Club, analysing not only how their technical and visual codes help to give them cult status, but also how their audience appeal ties in with niche psychometrics and cult film overall. Since its beginnings in the 1950s with movies like Plan 9 from Outer Space and The Blob, cult film has never utilised one set of conventionsÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦This case can also be reemphasised by theorists Fiske and Jancovitch too, as both have looked to create compelling connections between audience reception procedures and cult film also. WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s more, many of these theorists have also come to contend theoretical responses about the conception of Ã¢â¬ËresurrectionÃ¢â¬â¢ in cult film Ã¢â¬â the ideology that one way for a film to achieve its cult status is through being Ã¢â¬ËrevivedÃ¢â¬â¢ from its bumpy origins in production or commercial disappointments at the box-office through the lasting appreciation of niche audiences. This therefore means that the film will survive in an oppositional context to what Fiske declared as the Ã¢â¬Ëmore Ã¢â¬Å"normalÃ¢â¬ popular audiencesÃ¢â¬â¢ of that period. In addition, it is this ideology of Ã¢â¬Ëresurrectio nÃ¢â¬â¢ within cult film that David FincherÃ¢â¬â¢s Fight Club illustrates. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬â¢Fight ClubÃ¢â¬â¢ sold 13 million DVDs. It paid for itself.Ã¢â¬ proclaimed auteur David Fincher, whose text back in 1999 was financially unsuccessful, but soon gained cult status through its DVD releases and fandom events that were a commercial hit. Subjectively following the point of view of Brad PittÃ¢â¬â¢s rebellious protagonist Tyler Durden and his coming of age society, Fight Club is a present-day touchstone for audiences to recognise the
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
I believe that oneÃ¢â¬â¢s age and generation do not affect their leadership style nearly as much as there life experience, motivation, and knowledge. A leader can be successful at any age, if they are willing and eager to constantly adapt their communication styles to accommodate their followersÃ¢â¬â¢ needs. However, within each generation there are different values and management styles and if an individual resists adapting to newer methods and neglects to embrace change they will not be a successful leader. For example, the business world has grown into a much different culture than it was 20 years ago. With the Information Age booming, information is readily accessible to many individuals and the lines of communication between leader andÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦(BehrstockÃ¢â¬âSherratt and Coggshall, 2010) It is the combination of the focus on relationships, embracing the technological age, and their desire to create a positive impact on society through their busi ness practices that separate Generation Y from other generations and have created the shift in how teams communicate with one another. Leaders in Generation Y value and appreciate the professional relationships they create within their organizational culture, which creates a more democratic way of leading a team. Within this democratic leadership style, effective communication is essential to successful operations. New research has allowed Generation Y leaders to apply the knowledge they gain prior to getting trapped in the routine of a dictatorship. In the past 5 years alone, there have been multiple studies done regarding solely how leaders can communicate with their team to create the highest success rate along with the most invested followers. According to Clark (2008, para. 2), Ã¢â¬Å"Studying the communication process is important because you coach, coordinate, counsel, evaluate, and supervise throughout this process. It is the chain of understanding that integrates the me mbers of an organization from top to bottom, bottom to top, and side to side.Ã¢â¬ It is this cyclical ideology that has encouraged follower feedback and leader responsiveness and active listening, rather than acceptance of an individual leadersÃ¢â¬â¢ vision. The other communication shift that hasShow MoreRelatedOrganizational Structure And Culture At Lone Tree Convalescent Hospital1054 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesis the pattern of learned values, attitudes, and behaviors in the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s members (Schein, 1990). 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A few, if not greater, are probably not aware that generation gaps exist in the workplace or maybe avoiding the existence of these generational differences. According to Toops, (May 2013), Ã¢â¬Å"in my organization, there are real differences between older and younger generations and how they approach workÃ¢â¬ (p.40). No two people are alike and the more people recognize our differences, thenRead MoreLeadership And The Non Verbal Communication Styles1523 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagestakes great communication between leaders and subordinates. This is one problem that will be addressed in this literature review. The author will look at the problems and the solutions to overcoming these situations. The author will show that different leadership styles show that communication and determine how subordinates will produce as well having good morale. A few of these styles include transformational and laissez-faire. 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Saturday, April 25, 2020
The Injustice of Plastics Essay Disadvantages of Plastics are 1. Flammable Ã¢â¬â This is definitely an advantage in that they can be melted down, however smoldering plastics can release toxic fumes into the environment. 2. Cost of Recycling Ã¢â¬â While recycling is a plus, recycling is a very costly endeavor. 3. Volume Ã¢â¬â In the United States 20% of our landfill is made up of plastics. As more products are being made of plastics, where will this lead us in the future? 4. Durability Ã¢â¬â This is an advantage as well as a disadvantage. Plastics are extremely durable, which means that they last a long time. Those plastics in the landfill will be there for years. Plastics make our lives easier, however is their cost on the environment worth it? We can only hope that soon someone will invent a way to safely and cheaply melt and reuse plastics. A plastic material is any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic amorphous solids used in the manufacture of industrial products. Plastics are typically polymers of high molecular mass, and may contain other substances to improve performance and/or reduce costs. Monomers of plastic are either natural or synthetic organic compounds. We will write a custom essay sample on The Injustice of Plastics specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on The Injustice of Plastics specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on The Injustice of Plastics specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer The word plastic is derived from the Greek (plastikos) meaning capable of being shaped or molded, from (plastos) meaning molded.  It refers to their malleability, or plasticity during manufacture, that allows them to be cast, pressed, or extruded into a variety of shapesÃ¢â¬âsuch as films, fibers, plates, tubes, bottles, boxes, and much more. The common word plastic should not be confused with the technical adjective plastic, which is applied to any material which undergoes a permanent change of shape (plastic deformation) when strained beyond a certain point. Aluminum, for instance, is plastic in this sense, but not a plastic in the common sense; in contrast, in their finished forms, some plastics will break before deforming and therefore are not plastic in the technical sense. There are two types of plastics: thermoplastics and thermosetting polymers. Thermoplastics will soften and melt if enough heat is applied; examples are polyethylene, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). Thermosets can melt and take shape once; after they have solidified, they stay solid. Overview Plastics can be classified by chemical structure, namely the molecular units that make up the polymers backbone and side chains. Some important groups in these classifications are the acrylics, polyesters, silicones, polyurethanes, and halogenated plastics. Plastics can also be classified by the chemical process used in their synthesis, such as condensation, polyaddition, and cross-linking.  Other classifications are based on qualities that are relevant for manufacturing or product design. Examples of such classes are the thermoplastic and thermoset, elastomer, structural, biodegradable, and electrically conductive. Plastics can also be classified by various physical properties, such as density, tensile strength, glass transition temperature, and resistance to various chemical products. Due to their relatively low cost, ease of manufacture, versatility, and imperviousness to water, plastics are used in an enormous and expanding range of products, from paper clips to spaceships. They have already displaced many traditional materials, such as wood; stone; horn and bone; leather; paper; metal; glass; and ceramic, in most of their former uses. The use of plastics is constrained chiefly by their organic chemistry, which seriously limits their hardness, density, and their ability to resist heat, organic solvents, oxidation, and ionizing radiation. In particular, most plastics will melt or decompose when heated to a few hundred degrees celsius.  While plastics can be made electrically conductive to some extent, they are still no match for metals like copper or aluminum. citation needed] Plastics are still too expensive to replace wood, concrete and ceramic in bulky items like ordinary buildings, bridges, dams, pavement, and railroad ties. Chemical structure Common thermoplastics range from 20,000 to 500,000 amu, while thermosets are assumed to have infinite molecular weight. These chains are made up of many repeating molecular units, known as repeat units, deri ved from monomers; each polymer chain will have several thousand repeating units. The vast majority of plastics are composed of polymers of carbon and hydrogen alone or with oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine or sulfur in the backbone. Some of commercial interests are silicon based. ) The backbone is that part of the chain on the main path linking a large number of repeat units together. To customize the properties of a plastic, different molecular groups hang from the backbone (usually they are hung as part of the monomers before linking monomers together to form the polymer chain). This fine tuning of the properties of the polymer by repeating units molecular structure has allowed plastics to become such an indispensable part of twenty first-century world. Some plastics are partially crystalline and partially amorphous in molecular structure, giving them both a melting point (the temperature at which the attractive intermolecular forces are overcome) and one or more glass transitions (temperatures above which the extent of localized molecular flexibility is substantially increased). The so-called semi-crystalline plastics include polyethylene, polypropylene, poly (vinyl chloride), polyamides (nylons), polyesters and some polyurethanes. Many plastics are completely amorphous, such as polystyrene and its copolymers, poly (methyl methacrylate), and all thermosets. Almost every market that you go today, you will see people carrying their shopping items in plastic bags. Right from food items to clothes to shoes, there is hardly any item that we do not use a plastic bag to carry. However, before stuffing your home with different styles, colors and shapes of plastic bags, have you every considered the dangers that are inherent in using them? No? Then, reading through this article is a must for you. Go through the following lines and explore the disadvantages of plastic bags. After reading them, we are sure that you will prefer sticking to paper bags and the like. Dangers Of Using Plastic Bags Environmental Damage Plastic bags have been known to cause a lot of environmental damage. A single plastic bag can take up to 1000 years, to decay completely. This makes the bags stay in environments longer, in turn leading to great build-up on the natural landscape (much more than degradable materials like paper). In other words, the more plastic bags you use, the greater the chances of environmental damage. Threat To Animal Life As per Marrickville Council of Australia, as many as 100,000 whales, turtles and birds die have been reported to die every year, mainly because of plastic in their environment. Plastic bags not only have adverse effects on our natural habitats, but have also been found to be responsible for the death of many animals, mainly on account of the suffocation encountered on eating them. Suffocation Not only animals, infants and young children have also been reported to have lost their life, on account of plastic bags. Since plastic bags are thin and airtight as well, children often end up blocking their mouths and nostrils with them. In case they are not being monitored by an adult, this leads to suffocation and, in some cases, even death. Pollution Plastic bags are extremely durable. In case you are thinking of this as an advantage, just bring to mind an image of the huge landfill that you visited on the city outskirts, the other day. In most probability, majority of the rubbish present there will comprise of plastic bags only. In other words, plastic bags have led to a great increase in the pollution levels. Fumes Since plastic bags are not bio-degradable, the only way to get rid of them is to burn them up. Though lighting a match to them is easy, it has more than its fair share of disadvantages. The biggest of them is that smoldering plastics can release toxic fumes into the environment, in turn taking the air pollution to much higher levels. Non-renewable One of the main disadvantages of plastic bags is that they are not renewable. The reason behind this is that they are made of petrochemicals, a non-renewable source of energy. They can be recycled, but not as easily as paper bags. Plastic bags can last for as much as hundred of years. In other words, long after you are no more, the plastic bag used by you will be in existence. Plastics are manufactured from petroleum. This brings a host of issues (destruction of habitat, extraction of crude oil, security issues from the volatile countries where oil is produced, processing of petroleum, chemical manipulation into various types of plastics). The manufacture involves many chemicals, many of which have not been sufficiently tested for their toxicological impact on humans or animals. The final plastic product is often a chemical entity that in and of itself has had insufficient toxicological and ecotoxicological testing. An example would be PVC, forms of which are banned in Europe but exist widely in childrens toys in America. Recent controversies over plastic bottles (many toxicologists recommending not re-using plastic water bottles and not storing food in tupperware) have highlighted the potential risks. Exacerbating the problem is that science is only now advancing to where it can detect plastic components in human blood and then trace concentrations and link them to human ailments and diseases. The plastics industry itself often spins plastic and related plastic chemicals into a variety of products, some of which are hazardous and controversial (Teflon, PVC, Polyethylene, polystyrene, various silicones in body and hair care). Plastic-producing companies are often chemical companies or subsidiaries of chemical companies, both with poor track records when it comes to their adherence to regulatory compliance and their willingness to perform toxicological analysis on the products they make. Plastics often leech component chemicals, including hazardous chemicals, through common temperature changes. It is for this reason that toxicologists do not recommend storing very cold foods in plastics or heating foods (microwaving especially) in plastics. Plastics are durable materials. Thus, they are hard to eliminate once used and create tremendous waste. While some common plastics can be recycled (#1 and #2 plastics used in common soda and milk bottles), the vast majority cannot. They take up a lot of space in landfills and create air pollution when incinerated. The Disadvantages of Plastic Skylights Although plastic skylights are safer and sturdier than glass skylights, they do pose several long term disadvantages. Firstly, because they are made in single sheets, they can only be curved or bent in one area, which limits design options. Secondly, all plastics deteriorate in strength and light transmission as time passes, due to ultraviolet rays, heat and oxidation (and none can be entirely prevented). And finally, the life and service of plastic materials is highly unpredictable. Therefore choosing the plastics you will use for a plastic skylight requires much research and first hand knowledge. This is where Roof 101 can help Ã¢â¬â our contractors have worked with all kinds of plastics in plastic skylights, and their first hand experience could greatly assist you in reaching a decision.